AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE FACTORS AFFECTING VIABILITY OF A SUSTAINABLE SLUM UPGRADING PROCESS. CASE STUDY: KIBERA

ABSTRACT
To survive, human beings depend on basic need which are food, clothing and shelter or housing. Poverty however drives most city dwellers to informal settlement which are overcrowded and lack basic facilities to sustain a minimum level of living. The Kenyan Constitution (2010), under article 43 states that every citizen has a right to access decent housing; but the dwellers of informal settlement lack decent housing.
The Government over years has used many interventions to curb the proliferation of informal settlements including; evictions, site and service schemes and redevelopment although the methods proved unsuccessful. The current intervention in place is the Kenya Slum Upgrading Program (KENSUP).
The general objective of this study was to look in to the factors affecting the viability of sustainable slum upgrading in kibera slum and recommend ways to resolve this factors hence increasing chances of success in improving lives of slum dwellers and curbing growth of kibera. The aim of this research study was not to criticize the slum upgrading project but to analyze the factors (both positive and negative) affecting its viability in order to ensure a timely, viable and sustainable slum upgrading project.
The research project reviewed literature from different sources and discussed several and their impacts on viability of sustainable slum upgrading in kibera slum. The factors included; government efforts, donor's role, community participation, corruption, politics, high rent, corruption, Loss of jobs, slum dwellers‟ ignorance and illiteracy, lack of employment among slum dwellers and Inadequate approach.
The target population was Soweto residents and KENSUP officials but due to time and resource constraints, the study was limited to some portion of the target population and was selected through sampling of the target population. Data was collected through interviews and questionnaires. Raw data acquired from the field through interviews and questionnaires was transformed into a format that aided analysis. Data analysis involved interpretation in correlating independent and dependent variables with a view to answering the research questions. Results of analysis were translated into tables, pie – charts and bar graphs.
Findings from the study revealed that successful and sustainable slum upgrading is possible if the factors were either encouraged or mitigated. Areas of further studies suggested were;
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slum upgrading using alterntive building materials as a way to reduce building cost and as a result make the new housing affordable to the beneficiaries; ways to prevent growth of already existing slums and emerge of new slums and a relocation policy for slum upgrading to prevent slum dwellers from letting out the entire unit.

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